UC Santa Barbara General CatalogUniversity of California, Santa Barbara

Economics

Division of Social Sciences
North Hall 2127
Telephone: (805) 893-7309

Undergraduate Office: (805) 893-2981
Graduate Office: (805) 893-2205
Undergraduate e-mail: ugrad@econ.ucsb.edu
Graduate e-mail:  grad@econ.ucsb.edu
Website: www.econ.ucsb.edu
Department Chair: Kelly Bedard


 

Some courses displayed may not be offered every year. For actual course offerings by quarter, please consult the Quarterly Class Search or GOLD (for current students). To see the historical record of when a particular course has been taught in the past, please visit the Course Enrollment Histories.

Economics
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Collapse Courses Lower Division 
ECON 1. Principles of Economics-Micro
(4) SONSTELIE
Enrollment Comments: Quarters usually offered: Winter, Fall.
Repeat Comments: Full credit will be awarded if Economics 1 taken after Economics 9.
An introduction to microeconomic analysis. Economic theory related to demand, production, competitive and non- competitive product markets, input markets, and welfare. Applications of microeconomic theory including its use in evaluating and forming public policy.
ECON 2. Principles of Economics-Macro
(4) BIRCHENALL, RUPERT
Prerequisite: Economics 1
Enrollment Comments: Quarters usually offered: Winter, Spring.
An introduction to macroeconomic analysis. Analysis of income, employment, and price level. Applications of macroeconomic theory including its usein evaluating and forming public policy.
ECON 3A. Financial Accounting
(4) ANDERSON
Recommended Preparation: Economics 1 and 2.
Enrollment Comments: Quarters usually offered: Winter, Fall.
A two-quarter series providing an introduction to the purposes, conceptual framework, measurement principles and reporting issues of accounting. Particular emphasis will be placed on the links between accounting, economics, and finance.
ECON 3AH. Financial Accounting - Honors
(1) STAFF
Prerequisite: Concurrent with Econ 3A.
Enrollment Comments: Quarters usually offered: Winter, Fall.
Students receive one unit for the honors seminar. Intended for highly motivated and well prepared students.
ECON 3B. Financial Accounting
(4) HARMON
Prerequisite: Economics 3A.
Recommended Preparation: Economics 1 and 2.
Enrollment Comments: Quarters usually offered: Winter, Spring.
A two-quarter series providing an introduction to the purposes, conceptual framework, measurement principles and reporting issues of accounting. Particular emphasis will be placed on the links between accounting, economics, and finance.
ECON 3BH. Financial Accounting - Honors
(1) STAFF
Prerequisite: Concurrent with Econ 3B.
Enrollment Comments: Quarters usually offered: Winter, Spring, Fall.
Students receive one unit for the honors seminar. Intended for highly motivated and well prepared students.
ECON 9. Introduction to Economics
(4) WATSON
Enrollment Comments: Open to non-majors. Course cannot be used to satisfy any economics major requirements. Reduced credit of 2 units will be given to students who have taken Economics 1 or Economics 2. Full credit will be awarded for Economics 1 or Economics 2 if taken after Economics 9. No credit for those whohave taken Econ 109.
Repeat Comments: Not open to students who have taken Economics 1 and 2, but full credit willbe awarded for Economics 1 and/or Economics 2 if taken after Economics 9. No credit given to students who have taken Econ 109.
A broad survey of economic principles, including both microeconomics and macroeconomics.
ECON 10A. Intermediate Microeconomic Theory
(4) BEDARD
Prerequisite: Economics 1 and 2; Mathematics 34A-B or 3A-B.
Enrollment Comments: Designed for majors. Quarters usually offered: Winter, Fall. Course must betaken at UCSB. Reduced credit of 2 units will be given to students who have taken Econ 10A and then take Econ 104A. Not open to students who have taken Econ. 100A or 104A.
Economic theory relating to demand, production, and competitive product markets with emphasis on applications of theory.
ECON 93. Internship in Economics
(1-5) STAFF
Enrollment Comments: Designed for majors. Quarters usually offered: Winter, Spring, Summer, Fall. Open to Pre-Economics, Pre-Economics and Accounting and Pre- Economics/Mathematics majors only.
Course enables students to obtain credit for economics- related internshipexperience. A seven to ten page written report is required and evaluated for credit.
ECON 96. Sophomore Honors Seminar
(2) ROYER
Prerequisite: Approval by the Department based on performance in Economics 1 and 2.
Enrollment Comments: Designed for majors. Quarters usually offered: Winter, Spring.
Small seminar class that gives sophomores interested in pursuing economicresearch the opportunity to read and discuss selected economics texts andresearch papers. The objective is to expose students to a wide range of research topics in order to give them a flavor of the research opportunities available.
Collapse Courses Upper Division 
ECON 100B. Intermediate Microeconomic Theory
(4) GROSSMAN, VESPA
Prerequisite: Economics 10A or 100A and PStat 5E or 109.
Enrollment Comments: Designed for majors. Quarters usually offered: Winter, Spring. No credit will be given to students who have taken Economics 104B.
Repeat Comments: No credit will be given to students who have taken Economics 104B.
Economic theory relating to imperfectly competitive product markets, input market, and welfare, with emphasis on applications. Includes an introduction to game theory.
ECON 100BH. Intermediate Microeconomic Theory - Honors
(1) STAFF
Prerequisite: Concurrent with Econ 100B.
Students receive one unit for the honors seminar. Intended for highly motivated and well prepared students.
ECON 100C. Intermediate Microeconomic Theory
(4) BERGSTROM
Prerequisite: Economics 100B or 104B.
Enrollment Comments: Designed for majors.
Covers topics including externalities, law and economics, information technologies, public goods and asymmetric information. These topics are essential to understanding real markets, but are currently not included in the Economics 100A-B sequence.
ECON 101. Intermediate Macroeconomic Theory
(4) STAFF
Prerequisite: Economics 10A or 100A or 104A and PStat 5E or 109.
Recommended Preparation: Economics 100B or 104B.
Enrollment Comments: Designed for majors. Quarters usually offered: Spring, Fall. Reduced creditof 2 units will be given to students who have taken both Economics 101 and 105.
Contemporary analysis of income, employment, price level, and public policy using static general equilibrium framework with emphasis on applications of theory. Long term economic growth is also covered.
ECON 106. Managerial Economics
(4) BENELLI
Prerequisite: Economics 100B or 104B.
Enrollment Comments: Designed for majors. Quarters usually offered: Winter, Spring, Fall.
Economic principles will be applied to practical decision-making situations. Methods of price and output determination, capital budgeting, and choices under uncertainty. Methods of economic analysis and their application will be emphasized.
ECON 107A. History of Economics
(4) EBENSTEIN
Prerequisite: Economics 10A
Enrollment Comments: Designed for majors.
Economic thought from antiquity through John Stuart Mill. Economic thought in the Bible, Greece, Rome, India, and China through the classical economists-- Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, Adam Smith, Jeremy Bentham, Thomas Malthus, David Ricardo, and John Stuart Mill. Emphasis on both economic activity and economic thought, including discussion of feudal and mercantilist societies. The economic roles of women and slavery are presented.
ECON 107B. History of Economics
(4) EBENSTEIN
Prerequisite: Economics 10A.
Enrollment Comments: Designed for majors.
Economic thought from Karl Marx to the present, with emphasis on public policy, institutions, and historical circumstances. In addition to Marx economists who are emphasized include John Maynard Keynes, Friedrich Hayek, and Milton Friedman. Features discussions of capitalism, socialism, and communism and student presentations. Other foci include the Great Depressionand economic policy and thought in the Reagan administration to the present.
ECON 112A. European Economic History to 1850
(4) EBENSTEIN
Prerequisite: Economics 10A
Analysis of the economic development of Europe from the Middle Ages through the English Industrial Revolution.
ECON 112B. European Economic History Since 1850
(4) EBENSTEIN
Prerequisite: Economics 10A.
Analysis of the economic development of Europe since the English Industrial Revolution.
ECON 113A. Economic History of the United States to 1900
(4) EBENSTEIN
Prerequisite: Economics 10A.
Key issues and episodes in American economic history, such as the sourcesof economic growth, slavery, and the nineteenth-century southern economy.Populism and the rise of regulation, as well as macroeconomic history.
ECON 113B. Twentieth-Century United States Economic History
(4) EBENSTEIN
Prerequisite: Economics 10A
A survey of U.S. economic development in the twentieth century with emphasis on issues related to the growth, instability, and distribution of income. The impact of public policy on economic growth, instability, and income distribution will be an important theme of the course.
ECON 114A. Economic Development
(4) BENELLI
Prerequisite: Economics 10A or 104A.
Microeconomic issues of developing nations. Applications of analytical tools to the microeconomic problems of developing nations. Topics include poverty and income distributions, population, rural-urban migration, education, nutrition, labor supply, and poverty wages.
ECON 114B. Economic Development
(4) BIRCHENALL
Prerequisite: Economics 10A or 104A
Macroeconomic issues of developing nations. Applications of analytical tools to the growth of developing nations. The theoretical relationship between factor accumulation, productivity, and growth are examined. Topics include Solow growth model, institutions, culture, and geography.
ECON 115. Environmental Economics
(4) BENELLI AND OLIVA
Prerequisite: Economics 10A or 100A or 104A.
Enrollment Comments: Same course as Environmental Studies 175.
provides a rigorous treatment of environment economics. Topics include welfare analysis, ethical dimensions of economic criteria for protecting the environment, measuring the demand for environmental goods, property rights, economic incentives, including marketable permits and emission fees, and regulating risk.
ECON 116A. Industrial Organization Principles
(4) COMANOR
Prerequisite: Economics 100B or 104B and 140A.
Enrollment Comments: Not open for credit to students who have completed Economics 116.
Analysis of competition, monopolistic competition, oligopoly, and monopoly theories and practices.
ECON 116B. Economic Regulation
(4) COMANOR
Prerequisite: Economics 100B or 104B.
Natural monopoly and the theory of its regulation, including incentive compatible mechanisms. Review of regulatory practice in industries such as electric power generation and distribution, trucking and rail transport, and telecommunications. Franchise bidding mechanisms in cable television and cellular telephony.
ECON 116C. Antitrust Economics
(4) COMANOR
Prerequisite: Economics 100B or 104B.
The antitrust treatment of monopoly and monopolization, including both horizontal and vertical market arrangements and controls, and in-depth analysis of major antitrust decisions.
ECON 117A. Law and Economics I
(4) FRECH
Prerequisite: Economics 100B or 104B and 140A.
Application of economic analysis to the law. Includes an introduction to common law, constitutional law, and legal processes. Topics may include property law, contract law, and tort law.
ECON 118. Financial Accounting Analysis and Planning
(4) KULPER
Prerequisite: Economics 136C
Enrollment Comments: Quarters usually offered: Winter, Spring, Fall.
An economic analysis of financial statements in a macroeconomic environment. Topics include evaluation of short term and long term liquidity, profitability, capital structure and the forecast of earnings and financial position using financial and economic models.
ECON 118H. Financial Accounting Analysis and Planning - Honors
(1) STAFF
Prerequisite: Concurrent enrollment in Econ 118.
Enrollment Comments: Quarters usually offered: Winter, Spring, Fall.
Students receive one unit for the honors seminar. Intended for highly motivated and well prepared students.
ECON 120. Urban and Regional Economics
(4) SONSTELIE
Prerequisite: Economics 100B or 104B and 140A.
Economic analysis applied to current urban and regional problems.
ECON 122. Natural Resource Economics
(4) DEACON
Prerequisite: Economics 10A or 100A or 104A.
Enrollment Comments: Same course as Environmental Studies 179.
Microeconomic theory and capital theory applied to problems of conservationand management of natural resources. Analysis of public policy with specialemphasis on nonrenewable energy resources, management of forests, deforestation and species extinction, and use of fish and game resources.
ECON 127. Climate Change
(4) DESCHENES
Prerequisite: Econ 10A or 100A or 104A.
Enrollment Comments: Designed for majors.
Economic and policy issues underlying threat of global climate change, in particular, role of economics in designing efficient climate policy. Present some of scientific methods in assessing climate change processes. Topics include externalities, taxation, valuation, discounting, and cost- benefit analysis.
ECON 130. Public Finance
(4) STUART
Prerequisite: Economics 100B or 104B; and 101 or 105.
Fiscal theory and policy. Incidence and effects of taxation, government expenditure programs, and benefit cost analysis.
ECON 132A. Auditing
(4) ANDERSON
Prerequisite: Economics 136B.
Enrollment Comments: Quarters usually offered: Winter, Spring, Fall. Not open to students who have successfully completed Economics 132.
Developing an understanding of concepts and practices for audits of financial statements. Studying professional standards, ethics, and legal liability. The audit process is covered in-depth: planning, internal control, audit risk, materiality, evidence, program design, sampling, completingthe audit, and reporting.
ECON 132AH. Auditing - Honors
(1) STAFF
Prerequisite: Concurrent enrollment in Econ 132A.
Enrollment Comments: Quarters usually offered: Winter, Spring, Fall.
Students receive one unit for the honors seminar. Intended for highly motivated and well prepared students.
ECON 132B. Fraud and Forensic Accounting
(4) LOSTER
Prerequisite: Economics 136B
Application of special skills in accounting, auditing, finance, quantitative methods, certain areas of the law, research, and investigative skills for the purpose of resolving financial issues in a manner that meets standards required by courts of law. Topics include accounting and legal fundamentals, tools and techniques, and selected applications: financial statement fraud, fraud against the organization, tax fraud, bankruptcy, divorce, and identity theft, organized crime and terrorism investigation, business valuation, and dispute resolution and litigation services. Case studies and guest speakers are used.
ECON 132BH. Forensic Accounting - Honors
(1) STAFF
Prerequisite: Concurrent enrollment in Econ 132B.
Enrollment Comments: Quarters usually offered: Winter, Spring, Fall.
Students receive one unit for the honors seminar. Intended for highly motivated and well prepared students.
ECON 133. Topics in Macroeconomic Theory
(4) BOHN
Prerequisite: Economics 100B or 104B, and 101 or 105.
Topics may include fiscal policy and government budget deficits, monetary policy and inflation, investment and economic growth, theories of the business cycle, rational expectations and the Lucas critique, optimal taxation and the time consistency of government policies. Content may vary from year to year.
ECON 134A. Financial Management
(4) HARTMAN
Prerequisite: Economics 100B or 104B, and 140A.
Enrollment Comments: Quarters usually offered: Spring, Fall.
Discounting of certain future cash flows. Principles of evaluation of investment projects. Demand and supply of investment funds. Risk and the valuation of asset prices. Analysis of a firm's debt and dividend policies;the effect of taxes and inflation on these policies.
ECON 134B. Financial Management
(4) HARTMAN
Prerequisite: Economics 134A.
is devoted to the testing and application of theories developed in Economics 134A. The specific characteristics and uses of warrants, options, futures, bonds, and stocks are studied. The microcomputer lab may be used for homework projects.
ECON 135. Monetary Economics
(4) BOHN
Prerequisite: Economics 100B or 104B, and 101 or 105.
Recommended Preparation: Economics 134A.
Survey of monetary theory, the banking system and the supply of money, monetary policy, and current issues.
ECON 136A. Intermediate Accounting
(5) MAASS
Prerequisite: Economics 3B, 10A, and PStat 109.
Enrollment Comments: Quarters usually offered: Winter, Spring, Fall.
An in-depth analysis of recognition, measurement, classification, and valuation issues in financial reporting within the framework of generally accepted accounting principles. Case studies and microcomputer analysis software will be integrated into the course.
ECON 136AH. Intermediate Accounting - Honors
(1) STAFF
Prerequisite: Concurrent enrollment in Econ 136A.
Enrollment Comments: Designed for majors. Quarters usually offered: Winter, Spring, Fall.
Students receive one unit for the honors seminar. Intended for highly motivated and well prepared students.
ECON 136B. Intermediate Accounting
(4) MAASS
Prerequisite: Economics 136A and 137A.
Enrollment Comments: Quarters usually offered: Winter, Spring, Fall.
An in-depth analysis of recognition, measurement, classification, and valuation issues in financial reporting within the framework of generally accepted accounting principles. Case studies and microcomputer analysis software will be integrated into the course.
ECON 136BH. Intermediate Accounting - Honors
(1) STAFF
Prerequisite: Concurrent enrollment in Econ 136B.
Enrollment Comments: Designed for majors. Quarters usually offered: Winter, Spring, Fall.
Students receive one unit for the honors seminar. Intended for highly motivated and well prepared students.
ECON 136C. Intermediate Accounting
(4) SANDER
Prerequisite: Economics 136A-B.
Enrollment Comments: Quarters usually offered: Winter, Spring, Fall.
An in-depth analysis of recognition, measurement, classification, and valuation issues in financial reporting within the framework of generally accepted accounting principles. Case studies and microcomputer analysis software will be integrated into the course.
ECON 136CH. Intermediate Accounting - Honors
(1) STAFF
Prerequisite: Concurrent enrollment in Econ 136C.
Enrollment Comments: Quarters usually offered: Winter, Spring, Fall.
Students receive one unit for the honors seminar. Intended for highly motivated and well prepared students.
ECON 137A. Managerial Accounting
(4) WATSON
Prerequisite: Economics 3B, one of 10A or 100A, and one of PStat 5E or 109.
Enrollment Comments: Not open for credit to students who have completed Economics 137.
A two quarter series covering the theory and application of managerial accounting concepts. The course investigates the interaction between economic theory, financial accounting, and management decision making for planning and control.
ECON 137B. Managerial Accounting
(4) WATSON, LOSTER, MAASS
Prerequisite: Economics 137A.
Enrollment Comments: Not open for credit to students who have completed Economics 137.
A two-quarter series covering the theory and application of managerial accounting concepts. The course investigates the interaction between economic theory, financial accounting, and management decision making for planning and control.
ECON 137BH. Managerial Accounting - Honors
(1) STAFF
Prerequisite: Concurrent with Econ 137B.
Enrollment Comments: Quarters usually offered: Winter, Spring, Fall.
Students receive one unit for the honors seminar. Intended for highly motivated and well prepared students.
ECON 138A. Income Taxation
(4) STAFF
Prerequisite: Economics 3B, and 10A or 100A, and PStat 5E or 109.
An introduction to taxation. The basic theories, concepts, and general rules of federal income tax and their interrelationships with personal, business, and financial transactions. The course provides an understanding of tax policies and the interrelationship between tax and financial decisions.
ECON 138AH. Income Taxation - Honors
(1) STAFF
Prerequisite: Concurrent enrollment in Econ 138A.
Recommended Preparation: Concurrent enrollment in Econ 138A
Enrollment Comments: Quarters usually offered: Winter, Spring, Fall.
Students receive one unit for the honors seminar. Intended for highly motivated and well prepared students.
ECON 138B. Income Taxation
(4) STAFF
Prerequisite: Economics 138A.
An introduction to taxation. The basic theories, concepts, and general rules of federal income tax and their interrelationships with personal, business, and financial transactions. The course provides an understanding of tax policies and the interrelationship between tax and financial decisions.
ECON 139. Advanced Accounting
(4) HARMON
Prerequisite: Economics 136A-B.
Accounting for business combinations and preparation of consolidated financial statements, principles of fund accounting (governmental and non-profit entities), foreign currency translation and transactions, partnership formation, operation, and liquidation.
ECON 139H. Advanced Accounting - Honors
(1) STAFF
Prerequisite: Concurrent with Econ 139.
Enrollment Comments: Quarters usually offered: Winter, Spring, Fall.
Students receive one unit for the honors seminar. Intended for highly motivated and well prepared students.
ECON 140A. Introduction to Econometrics
(4) STARTZ
Prerequisite: Economics 10A or 100A or 104A, and PStat 5E or 109 or 120A.
Enrollment Comments: Quarters usually offered: Fall.
Estimation and hypothesis testing in classical linear regression models as well as violations of each classical assumption. Discrete dependent variable models and systems of simultaneous equation are also covered.
ECON 140B. Introduction to Econometrics
(4) ROYER
Prerequisite: Economics 140A.
Enrollment Comments: Quarters usually offered: Winter.
Time-series econometrics including stationary ARMA models, estimation and hypothesis testing in the presence of unit roots, and financial models with conditional heteroskedasticity.
ECON 140C. Introduction to Econometrics
(4) OLIVA
Prerequisite: Economics 140A.
Applied econometrics. An empirical project forms the basis of the course, designed to build on the principles taught in Economics 140A. Lectures concentrate on tools of applied analysis and may include, limited-dependent variable models, duration analysis, and system estimation.
ECON 141. Econometric Methods
(4) STARTZ
Prerequisite: PSTAT 109 or PSTAT 120A with a grade of B or better; and Math 4A with a grade of B or better.
Recommended Preparation: Comfort with basic matrix algebra.
Enrollment Comments: Designed for majors. Econ 141 satisfies course prerequisites that require Econ 140A. Econ 141 may be taken after Econ 140A, but Econ 140A may not betaken after Econ 141 except with permission of the instructor. Credit notgiven for both Econ 141 and 240B.
Repeat Comments: Econ 141 may be taken after Econ 140A, but Econ 140A may not be taken afterEcon 141 except with permission of the instructor. Credit not given for both Econ 141 and 240B.
A formal introduction to econometric methods centered on multiple regression and extensions. Emphasis on both theoretical background and applications. Students will learn both analytic mathematical methods and computational approaches.
ECON 150A. Labor Economics
(4) BENELLI
Prerequisite: Economics 10A or 100A or 104A.
Enrollment Comments: Not open for credit to students who have completed Economics 150.
Analyzes the determinants of labor supply, labor demand, and equilibrium. Topics include the work-incentive effects of income-support programs and theeffects of immigration on labor markets.
ECON 150B. Labor Economics
(4) KUHN, BEDARD, DESCHENES
Prerequisite: Economics 100B or 104B and 140A.
Analyzes the structure of wages. Determinants of earnings studied include compensating differentials, human capital in the form of education and training, and immigrant assimilation.
ECON 151. Economics of Gender
(4) ROSSIN-SLATER
Prerequisite: Economics 100B and 140A
Addresses issues of gender and family in the economy from a theoretical and empirical perspective. Economic models of marriage, divorce, and fertility with the goal of understanding the large changes in family structure that have occurred in the US will be studied. Women’s behavior in the labor force, and issues of poverty and gender gaps in labor market outcomes will be examined. Current policy issues of teen childbearing, parental leave, welfare reform and child support will be discussed.
ECON 152. Personnel Economics
(4) KUHN
Prerequisite: Economics 100B or 104B and 140A.
Studies the allocation and pricing of labor within firms. Topics covered include employee selection, design of optimal piece rates, advantages anddisadvantages of seniority-based pay, tournaments and promotions, and incentives in team production.
ECON 153. Economics of Education
(4) BEDARD
Prerequisite: Econ 10A or 100A or 104A, and 140A.
Economic theory, basic econometric techniques as they apply to economics ofeducation. Specific areas of focus include production and financing of education, contribution of education to economic growth and development, organization of education industry, and bias and discrimination in education.
ECON 154. Economics of the Family
(4) LUNDBERG
Prerequisite: Economics 100B or 104B, and 140A.
Addresses topics in the economics of families and households from both a theoretical and an empirical perspective. Structure and economic functioningof families have important implications for the well being of men and women, labor productivity, investments in children and economic growth. Considers economic models of marriage and divorce, specialization and household production, fertility, and intergenerational relations, and analyzes the effects of policies such as parental leave, divorce laws, compulsory schooling,and initiatives promoting female empowerment in developing countries.
ECON 164. Economics of Arts and Culture
(4) LOWELL
Prerequisite: Economics 10A or 100A or 104A.
Survey of economics of arts and culture, with a focus on nonprofit performing and visual arts. Topics include defining arts and culture, consumerdemand for arts, production in performing and visual arts, public good aspects of arts, public and private support for arts, and economic impact of arts and culture on local communities.
ECON 170. Health Economics
(4) FRECH, ROYER
Prerequisite: Economics 100B or 104B, and 140A.
Application of economic and statistical principles to health and health services. Topics may include the determinate of health, demand for health careand health insurance, competition and monopoly in health care and insuranceof health care, HMOs and managed care plans, public policy and international comparisons.
ECON 171. Introduction to Game Theory
(4) BERGSTOM, CHARNESS, GROSSMAN
Prerequisite: Economics 100B or 104B.
A rigorous study of strategic interaction. Topics include normal and extensive form games, existence and uniqueness of equilibrium, randomization, minimax, dynamics and equilibrium selection, auctions and bargaining, principle-agent incentives, voting, private contributions to public goods, oligopoly competition, market entry and burning money, wars of attrition.
ECON 174. Negotiations
(4) CHARNESS
Prerequisite: Economics 100B or 104B, and 140A.
Enrollment Comments: Designed for majors.
Applied theories as guides to improving negotiations. Develop and sharpen negotiating skills by participating in realistic negotiating simulations. A number of cases will be presented; individuals make choices about actions and tactics within the negotiation.
ECON 176. Experimental Economics
(4) GROSSMAN, VESPA
Prerequisite: Economics 100B or 104B, and 140A.
Enrollment Comments: Designed for majors.
Introduction to the idea that economics, like all of the natural sciences, can be a laboratory science. Focus on performing and engaging in experiments. Students design experiments and discuss the designs of others.
ECON 177. Auction
(4) GARRATT
Prerequisite: Econ 100B or 104B, and 140A.
Auction theory and its applications. Gain insight into how different auction rules influence bidding behavior and impact seller revenue. The course covers private and common value auctions. Topics include the revenue equivalence theorem and the winner's curse.
ECON 180. International Trade
(4) STAFF
Prerequisite: Economics 100B or 104B, and 101 or 105.
International trade theory and policies with examples from current issues and problems.
ECON 181. International Finance
(4) LOWELL
Prerequisite: Economics 100B or 104B, and 101 or 105.
International money and capital markets and their impact on the domestic and world economies; international financial institutions and policies.
ECON 182. International Accounting and Financial Management
(4) STAFF
Prerequisite: Economics 136A.
Accounting and financial management issues in the multinational enterprise including the global development of accounting and disclosure practice,international reporting and the management of global enterprise resources.
ECON 182H. International Accounting and Financial Management - Honors
(1) STAFF
Prerequisite: Concurrent enrollment in Econ 182.
Enrollment Comments: Quarters usually offered: Spring.
Students receive one unit for the honors seminar. Intended for highly motivated and well prepared students.
ECON 184. Decisions Under Uncertainty
(4) STAFF
Prerequisite: Economics 10A or 100A or 104A.
Analysis of decision-making by businesses, consumers, and public agencieswhen conditions are uncertain. Topics include probability, utility, maximization, representation of decision problems in practical applications, updating probabilities in light of new data, and valuation of information.
ECON 189. Business Law and Ethics in Accounting
(4) KULPER
Prerequisite: Economics 3B and 10A or 100A or 104A; PStat 5E or 109.
Enrollment Comments: Quarters usually offered: Winter, Spring, Fall.
Provides a basic understanding of ethics and the legal framework within which U.S. businesses operate. Includes a broad overview of court procedures and in-depth coverage of selected topics including contracts, securities, and property rights.
ECON 189H. Business Law and Ethics - Honors
(1) STAFF
Prerequisite: Concurrent enrollment in Econ 189.
Enrollment Comments: Quarters usually offered: Winter, Spring, Fall.
Students receive one unit for the honors seminar. Intended for highly motivated and well prepared students.
ECON 191AAZZ. Special Topics in Economics
(4) STAFF
Prerequisite: Econ 10A or 100A or 104A.
Enrollment Comments: Designed for majors. Open to economics majors only.
Repeat Comments: The SUPER COURSE ECON 191 may be taken for a maximum of 24 units.
Lectures in special areas of interest in economics. Consult the department office regarding proposed course topics.
ECON 191AC. Special Topics in Economics
ECON 191AR. Special Topics in Economics
ECON 191AT. Special Topics in Economics
ECON 191AV. Special Topics in Economics
ECON 191CS. Special Topics in Economics
ECON 191D. Special Topics in Economics
ECON 191DS. Special Topics in Economics
ECON 191EG. Special Topics in Economics
ECON 191ET. Special Topics in Economics
ECON 191F. Special Topics in Economics
ECON 191FC. Special Topics in Economics
ECON 191FR. Special Topics in Economics
ECON 191G. Special Topics in Economics
ECON 191HH. Special Topics in Economics
ECON 191IE. Special Topics in Economics
ECON 191JB. Special Topics in Economics
ECON 191JS. Special Topics in Economics
ECON 191KA. Special Topics in Economics
ECON 191KH. Special Topics in Economics
ECON 191M. Special Topics in Economics
ECON 191MD. Special Topics in Economics
ECON 191PF. Special Topics in Economics
ECON 191S. Special Topics in Economics
ECON 191TT. Special Topics in Economics
ECON 191VC. Special Topics in Economics
ECON 191WR. Special Topics in Economics
ECON 191WT. Special Topics in Economics
ECON 193. Internship in Economics
(1-5) STAFF
Enrollment Comments: Designed for majors. Quarters usually offered: Winter, Spring, Summer, Fall. Open to Business Economics, Economics, Economics and Accounting and Economics/Mathematics majors only.
Course enables students to obtain credit for economics-related internship experience. An eight to ten page written report is required and evaluated for credit.
ECON 194AAZZ. Group Studies
(1-4) STAFF
Prerequisite: Upper-division standing; consent of instructor.
Enrollment Comments: Subject to departmental approval, students my repeat this course; however, only four units may count toward major.
Intensive study and research on a topic in economics selected by the student with the guidance and approval of a faculty member.
ECON 194DC. Group Studies
ECON 194ER. Special Topics in Economics
ECON 194FI. Group Studies
ECON 194JH. Group Studies
ECON 194JS. Group Studies
ECON 194S. Group Studies
ECON 196A. Senior Honors Seminar
(4) LUNDBERG
Prerequisite: 3.5 GPA in Economics 10A or 100A or 104A, and 100B or 104B, and 101 or 105 and 140A.
Enrollment Comments: Quarters usually offered: Fall.
Students undertake independent research project(s) under direction of faculty member. The research results are presented as an honors paper at the endof the second term (196B).
ECON 196B. Senior Honors Seminar
(4) LUNDBERG
Prerequisite: Economics 196A and concurrent enrollment in ECON 140B.
Enrollment Comments: Quarters usually offered: Winter.
Students undertake independent research project(s) under direction of faculty member. The research results are presented as an honors paper at the endof the second term (196B).
ECON 199. Independent Studies in Economics
(1-5) STAFF
Prerequisite: Upper-division standing in the major; 3.0 UD major GPA and 3.0 GPA in preceding 3 quarters; completion of 2 upper-division courses in Economics; consent of department and instructor.
Enrollment Comments: Students must have a minimum 3.0 GPA for the preceding 3 quarters and a 3.0 GPA in the UD major. Students must have upper-division standing in the major and have completed at least 2 UD classes. Students are limited to 5 units per quarter and 30 units total in all 98/99/198/199/199AA-ZZ courses combined. Only 12 units of Economics 199 may apply toward the major
Coursework shall consist of academic research supervised by a faculty member. This course is not intended for internships.
ECON 199RA. Independent Research in Economics
(1-5) STAFF
Prerequisite: Upper-division standing; completion of 2 upper-division courses in Economics; consent of instructor and department.
Enrollment Comments: Students must have a cumulative 3.0 for the proceeding 3 quarter(s). Designed for majors. Students must have a minimum 3.0 GPA for the preceding 3 quarters and are limited to 5 units per quarter and 30 units total in all 98/99/198/199/199AA-ZZ courses combined. Does not count towards the upper-division major.
Course work shall consist of faculty supervised research.
Collapse Courses Graduate 
ECON 204A. Macroeconomic Theory
(4) BOHN
Prerequisite: Economics 210A-B.
Introduction to modern macroeconomics. Study of economic growth and dynamicoptimization. Representative agent, overlapping generations and monetary models will be covered.
ECON 204B. Macroeconomic Theory
(4) STAFF
Prerequisite: Economics 204A.
Introduction to dynamic programming. Arrow-Debreu Equilibria, Sequences ofMarket Equilibria, Recursive Competitive Equilibria. First and second welfare theorems. Real Business Cycles.
ECON 204C. Macroeconomic Theory
(4) STAFF
Prerequisite: Economics 204B.
Enrollment Comments: Quarters usually offered: Spring.
Focus on frictional economics. Topics to include: economies with incompletemarkets, private information, search and matching.
ECON 210A. Theory of Consumption and Production
(4) GARRATT, KOLSTAD, MARSHALL
Prerequisite: Mathematics 3A-B-C; and, Economics 104A-B, or Economics 205A-B.
Constrained optimization; consumer theory and theory of the firm; uncertainty, risk and expected utility.
ECON 210B. Game Theory
(4) GARRATT, QIN
Prerequisite: Mathematics 3A-B-C; and Economics 104A-B, or Economics 205A-B.
Non-cooperative and cooperative game theory; bargaining and auctions; topics in asymmetric information including adverse selection, signaling and screening.
ECON 210C. Markets and Incentives
(4) KOLSTAD, MARSHALL
Prerequisite: Economics 210A-B.
Partial and general equilibrium of competitive and non-competitive markets.Topics to include uncertainty; welfare theorems for competitive markets; imperfect competition; externalities and public goods.
ECON 214A. Economic Development
(4) BIRCHENALL
Prerequisite: Second year and above Ph.D. Graduate standing.
Enrollment Comments: Quarters usually offered: Winter, Spring, Fall.
The study of problems faced by the less developed countries. Elements of new growth theory. Topics considered include population growth, human capital, welfare, inequality, and technological change.
ECON 216A. Organization of Industry
(4) COMANOR, FRECH
Prerequisite: 2nd Year Ph.D. in Economics graduate student standing.
Theoretical and empirical analyses of "imperfect" competition. Individualor firm optimization and market equilibrium are considered. Topics include oligopoly, monopolistic competition, information, determinants of market structure, complex pricing, vertical relations. Antitrust, regulatory, and government ownership policies will be examined.
ECON 216B. Organization of Industry
(4) COMANOR, FRECH, KROUSE
Theoretical and empirical analyses of "imperfect" competition. Individual or firm optimization and market equilibrium are considered. Topics include oligopoly, monopolistic competition, information, determinants of market structure, complex pricing, vertical relations. Antitrust, regulatory, and government ownership policies will be examined.
ECON 225. Heterogeneous Agent Macroeconomics
(4) KAPICKA
Study dynamic general equilibrium models with heterogeneous agents. Cover economies where aggregation is possible, economies with exogenously incomplete markets and economies where the market incompleteness is endogenous due to limited commitment or private information.
ECON 228. Aggregate Economics
(4) KYDLAND
Prerequisite: Economics 204A, Economics 204B, Economics 204C and Second year Ph.D. graduate student standing.
Enrollment Comments: Quarters usually offered: Winter.
Develop and use model abstractions obtaining quantitative answers to questions in aggregate economics. Focus is theoretical, quantitative, & empirical analyses across several areas; Great Depressions, Mobility and Unemployment, Demographics, Financial Frictions, Output, & Labor Markets, and Money & Monetary Policy.
ECON 230A. Public Finance
(4) BERGSTROM, SHAPIRO, SONSTELIE
Public goods, taxation, and expenditure theory.
ECON 230B. Public Finance
(4) BERGSTROM, SHAPIRO, SONSTELIE
Topics vary; public debt management and fiscal policy; advanced topics in public expenditure and taxation theory; analysis of collective choice, political processes, and group decision making.
ECON 235A. Finance
(4) LEROY
Prerequisite: Economics 210A-B or 204A.
Individuals' optimal consumption/portfolio choice under uncertainty and implied asset valuation. Rigorous treatment of the traditional linear asset pricing relations; mean-variance CAPM and APT, and the equilibrium valuation;consumption-based intertemporal asset pricing models.
ECON 235B. Finance
(4) LEROY, MEHRA
Prerequisite: Economics 210D; Economics 204A or 208; Economics 235A.
Covers the integration of dynamic capital theory and the theory of finance,multiperiod general equilibrium pricing models and tests of those models.
ECON 235D. Modern Asset Pricing
(4) MITYAKOV
Prerequisite: Second year Ph.D. in Economics graduate student standing.
Enrollment Comments: Quarters usually offered: Fall.
Course covers: traditional asset pricing by deriving basic asset pricing model from representative agent model under the assumption of complete markets (Consumption based CAPM). Also discussed will be its empirical fit, the puzzles it raises and touch briefly on estimation using GMM. This general model will be applied to models used in practice: factor capital asset pricing model (CAPM), Fama-French 3-factor model, extensions to C- CAPM related to habit formation and Epstein-Zin recursive preferences, and incomplete markets.
ECON 241A. Econometrics
(4) BOHN
Prerequisite: Mathematics 3A-B-C or equivalent.
Elements of probability and statistics for econometrics. Probability density functions, moment-generating functions, central limit theorems, method ofmaximum likelihood.
ECON 241B. Econometrics
(4) STEIGERWALD
Prerequisite: Economics 241A.
The intuition and theory underpinning estimation of single and multiple equation regression models.
ECON 241C. Econometrics
(4) STAFF
Prerequisite: Economics 241B.
Covers extension of the general linear model, simultaneous equations estimation, identification, dynamic model structure, and limited dependent variable estimation. Emphasis is given to both theoretical development and applications of the basic theory.
ECON 242. Advanced Game Theory
(4) BERGSTROM, GARRATT, PROULX
Prerequisite: Economics 210B-C, or Mathematics 118.
Enrollment Comments: Not open for credit to students who have completed Economics 244B.
Cournot-Nash equilibrium, bargaining theory, value, and their modern variations including Bayesian-Nash equilibrium and evolutionary stable strategy. Nonequilibrium solution concepts (dominance and rationalizability). Applications to oligopoly, signaling, principal-agent problem, and orgainization of firms.
ECON 245A. Econometric Theory
(4) STEIGERWALD
Prerequisite: Economics 241C and Second year and above Ph.D. Graduate standing.
Enrollment Comments: Quarters usually offered: Fall.
The logic and structure of empirical work. In order: How to quantify theory; sources of data; methods of estimation; informative reporting of results.
ECON 245B. Econometric Theory
(4) STARTZ
Prerequisite: Economics 245A. Second year Ph.D. graduate student standing.
Enrollment Comments: Quarters usually offered: Winter.
Specification and estimation of time series models. Topics include ARMA models, trending variables (with attention paid to unit root models), andextension to multivariate (VAR and Related) models.
ECON 245C. Econometric Theory
(4) DESCHENES
Prerequisite: Economics 245A and 245B. Second year Ph.D. graduate student standing.
Enrollment Comments: Quarters usually offered: Spring.
Specification and estimation of models for cross-section data. Topics include models of individual choice (with attention paid to nonparametric estimators) and models for panel data.
ECON 245D. Workshop in Econometrics
(4) STARTZ
Prerequisite: Economics 245A and 245B, consent of instructor and Second year Ph.D. graduate student standing.
Enrollment Comments: Quarters usually offered: Winter.
Reading and discussion of selected topics and recent literature in econometrics. Emphasis on the development of dissertation research topics. Student presentations required. Course outline and readings will vary.
ECON 245E. Introduction to Bayesian Econometrics
(4) STARTZ
Prerequisite: Economics 241C and Economics 245A. Second year Ph.D. graduate student standing.
Enrollment Comments: Quarters usually offered: Winter, Spring.
Provides a graduate level introduction to Bayesian Econometrics. We beginwith a basic introduction to the Bayesian approach, and then examine how familiar estimation problems can be recast in a Bayesian light. Emphasis is practical technique, rather than philosophical questions.
ECON 249. Dynamic Optimization
(4) GARRATT
Prerequisite: Economics 210B or Mathematics 118.
Enrollment Comments: Not open for credit to students who have completed economics 201.
An introduction to the dynamic optimization techniques of the calculus of variations and optimal control theory. Focus on continuous time planning problems in a deterministic setting. Applications include natural resource extraction, energy production, human capital accumulation, and insurance.
ECON 250A. Labor Economics
(4) BEDARD, DESCHENES, KUHN
Theory and application of labor supply and demand models. Applications include work incentives of social programs, employment effects of minimum wages, and effects of immigration.
ECON 250B. Wage Structure
(4) BEDARD, DESCHENES, KUHN
Analysis of wage differentials by education, experience, union status, working conditions, and other factors.
ECON 250C. Current Research Topics in Labor Economics
(4) BEDARD, DESCHENES, KUHN
Prerequisite: Economics 250A and 250B. Second year Ph.D. graduate student standing.
Enrollment Comments: Quarters usually offered: Fall.
Areas covered vary from year to year.
ECON 250D. Population Economics
(4) LUNDBERG
Prerequisite: Second year Ph.D. graduate student standing.
Enrollment Comments: Quarters usually offered: Fall.
Course examines the determinants of population change and demographic behavior including household formation and dissolution, marriage and decision-making within households, child bearing and rearing, mortality (including infant mortality) and key forms of human capital investment including schooling and migration. We’ll apply theoretical and empirical tools to investigate the sources and consequences of demographic transitions including recent phenomena such as population aging, the emergence of lowest low fertility, and consider the role of policy instruments inchanging demographic behavior.
ECON 253A. Job Search Theory
(4) RUPERT
Theoretical and quantitative aspects of search theory as it applies to labor markets. Includes topics such as bargaining and models of wage determination, vacancies and unemployment.
ECON 253B. Topics in Search and Matching
(4) ALBRECHT, VROMAN
Prerequisite: 2nd year Economics Ph.D. standing.
Enrollment Comments: Quarters usually offered: Winter, Fall.
Surveys topics in search and matching theory with a particular emphasis on unemployment and the labor market. As far as possible, the topics will be chosen to complement the material covered in Economics 253A. Examples of topics covered are: (1) Competitive search with particular emphasis on markets with asymmetric information, (2) Applications of search theoryto the housing market and (3) Applications of search theory to informal labor markets in Latin America.
ECON 260A. Natural Resources
(4) DEACON, KOHLSTAD
Capital theory and welfare economics applied to the primarily dynamic questions concerning the uses of nonrenewable resources such as minerals, the use of renewable resources such as fisheries and forests, and the preservation of species and natural environments.
ECON 260B. Environmental Economics
(4) KOLSTAD
Prerequisite: Economics 210A-B
The primarily static theory of externalities and their correction. Covers basic theory of public bads and externalities, regulation theory related to environmental problems and applications, the valuation of environmental goods, transboundary pollution, and international trade and the environment.
ECON 260C. Collective Action and Open Access
(4) LIBECAP
Collective action problems addressing open access losses, including uncertainty, heterogeneous parties and information costs. Covers timing and natureof regulation and the assignment of property rights. Empirical topics include; water, air pollution, oil and gas extraction, and climate change.
ECON 273A. Managerial Accounting
(4) NISBET, WATSON
A course concerned with the financial statements that are made available tocreditors, stockholders, and other interested parties. The goal is to engender a knowledge of the measurement methods used by accountants and the ability to evaluate these methods.
ECON 275. Political Economy
(4) VESPA
Prerequisite: 2nd year Economics Ph.D. standing or 2nd year Political Science Ph.D. standing.
Enrollment Comments: Quarters usually offered: Spring.
Explores core topics in political economy and their connection to other fields. Core topics involve modeling: elections, constitutions, special interest groups, committees and political parties. Presents theoretical models, empirical tests (using survey and experimental data) and applications in other fields.
ECON 276. Experimental Economics
(4) CHARNESS
Research in experimental economics. Exposure to basic material with further study in individual areas of interest. Professor to meet individually todiscuss designing experiments that address the key questions, with student designing final experiment.
ECON 276A. Experimental Economics I
(4) OPREA
Prerequisite: Completion of first year of Economics Ph.D. program and 2nd year Economics Ph.D. Graduate student standing.
Enrollment Comments: Quarters usually offered: Winter, Spring.
Research methodology in experimental economics. The main lectures introduce conceptual, statistical and practical tools used in the design and conduct of economics experiments. Students present and prepare reviews of important recent papers in the field and, for a final project, complete anew experimental design.
ECON 276B. Experimental Economics II
(4) CHARNESS
Recommended Preparation: Completion of first year of Economics Ph.D. program and 2nd year Economics Ph.D. Graduate student standing.
Enrollment Comments: Quarters usually offered: Winter, Spring.
Topics in Experimental Economics. An introduction to several of the most important topics and literatures in Experimental Economics. The course also recaps and continues methodological discussions begun in Economics 276A. Students will prepare a final paper presenting a new experimental design.
ECON 277A. Behavioral Theory
(4) GROSSMAN, Z.
Prerequisite: Graduate standing and consent of instructor.
Course explores ways to formally model the findings of psychological, experimental-economic, and other research demonstrating departures from perfect rationality, self interest, and other classical assumptions of economics.
ECON 280A. Theory of International Trade
(4) STAFF
Prerequisite: Successful completion of Econ 204A, Econ 204B, and Econ 204C. Second year Ph.D. student standing.
Topics include the sources of gains from trade and comparative advantage,trade under increasing returns to scale and imperfect competition, strategic trade policy, political economy of trade policy, and trade and environment issues.
ECON 280B. International Finance
(4) STAFF
Prerequisite: Economics 204A.
Topics include current account dynamics, international risksharing, the transmission of business cycles, the determination of exchange rates, and sovereign debt.
ECON 282. International Finance
(4) LOWELL
Prerequisite: Masters student level standing and enrolled in UCSB Economics M.A. degree program and completion of Economics 100B or 104B, and 101 or 105, or equivalent level course at other undergraduate university.
Enrollment Comments: Quarters usually offered: Fall.
Covers the balance of payments; foreign exchange markets; fiscal and monetary policies under alternative exchange rate regimes; and short- andlong-run connections between exchange rates, inflation, interest rates,and domestic output. Examines current policy issues in open- economy macroeconomics/international finance using theoretical models explored in class.
ECON 290DM. Research Topics in Demography
(4) LUNDBERG
Prerequisite: 2nd year Ph.D. standing in Anthropology, Economics, Geography or Sociology.
Enrollment Comments: Quarters usually offered: Spring.
Demography seminar research/reading group that focuses on reading and discussing key research in demography across the participating disciplines (Anthropology, Economics, Geography and/or Sociology). All studentsin the Interdisciplinary PhD Emphasis in Demography must register in this group at least once, usually in the spring quarter of their first year in the Emphasis program.
ECON 290EC. Research Topics in Econometrics
(4) STEIGERWALD, STARTZ
Prerequisite: 2nd year in Economics Ph.D. student standing and completion of Econometrics 2nd year Ph.D. course sequence by beginning of 3rd year in Ph.D. program.
Enrollment Comments: Quarters usually offered: Winter, Spring, Fall.
Econometrics seminar and research/reading group that focuses on reading and discussing applied and methodological research in Econometrics across the interrelated disciplines of Economics, Statistics, Geography, Environmental Science, and Computer Science. Participants in the 3rd yearof their PhD program (and beyond) will typically present their own research quarterly.
ECON 293. Third Year Graduate Seminar
(4) STAFF
Students present and discuss their original research papers.
ECON 294. Microeconomics Seminar
(4) STAFF
Current topics in microeconomics.
ECON 295. Macroeconometrics Seminar
(4) STAFF
Invited speakers on the topics of econometrics, finance, international economics, and macroeconomics.
ECON 297. Seminar on the Teaching of Economics
(2) BENELLI
Prerequisite: Ph.D. graduate student standing.
Enrollment Comments: Quarters usually offered: Fall.
Graduate Teaching Assistants are vitally important to the educational experience of UCSB undergraduates and graduates. As a Teaching Assistant, your role is potentially multifold: designing and teaching your own sections, assisting a professor by leading quiz sections, grading, or working directly with students in a capacity that is less formal and beneficial to students. This discussion based course covers the tools needed: planning, FERPA, testing, learning styles, evaluations, academic dishonesty, sexual harassment, presenting and evaluating of instruction.
ECON 594AAZZ. Special Topics in Economics
(1-5) STAFF
Prerequisite: Graduate standing and consent of instructor.
Special seminar on research subjects of current interest.
ECON 594AA. Special Topics in Economics
ECON 594BE. Special Topics in Economics
ECON 594CT. Contract Theory
ECON 594EB. Special Topics in Economics - Experimental and Behavioral Economics
ECON 594EC. Special Topics in Economics
ECON 594ED. Special Topics in Economics - Human Capital and Education
ECON 594ER. Special Topics in Economics - Environmental and Natural Resource Economics
ECON 594HE. Special Topics in Economics - Health Economics
ECON 594LA. Special Topics in Labor Economics
ECON 594LR. Special Topics in Economics - Labor Economics
ECON 594MA. Special Topics in Economics - Macroeconomics
ECON 594MC. Special Topics in Economics
ECON 594MM. Special Topics in Economics
ECON 594QA. Special Topics in Economics
ECON 594WR. Special Topics in Economics
ECON 596. Directed Reading and Research
(2-4) STAFF
Prerequisite: Graduate standing and consent of instructor.
Individual tutorial.
ECON 597. Individual study for the Ph.D. Comprehensive Examinations.
(1-12) STAFF
Prerequisite: Ph.D. in Economics graduate student standing and consent of Director of Graduate Studies.
Enrollment Comments: No credit allowed toward advanced degree.
Individual study for the three Ph.D. level Preliminary Examinations in either Microeconomics, Macroeconomics and/or Econometrics. Instructor should be the Economics department Director of Graduate Studies.
ECON 599AAZZ. Dissertation Research and Preparation
(1-12) STAFF
Prerequisite: Graduate standing and consent of instructor.
Only for research underlying the dissertation, writing the dissertation. Instructor should be the chair of the student's doctoral committee.